Penalties come in two types; Shido, which is a slight infringement of the rules and Hansoku make, which is a grave infringement of the rules.
A shido penalty can be given for a lack of combativity, an illegal move, a hair or gi infringement. A contestant is allowed two shidos throughout regulation time and the golden score. If they receive a third shido, the third shido becomes a cumulative penalty hansoku make and the contestant loses the match on penalties.
A direct Hansoku-make penalty is given for dangerous techniques or actions against the sprit of Judo.
In Modules 2 through 5, Shido and Hansoku-make penalties will be discussed detail and are organized from most common situations to most rare situations.